populations in nature tend to remain stable in size
Therefore Variationis key to a species ability to survive.
there is a struggle to survive
better adapted individuals survive and pass on their characteristics
over time, a number of changes will give rise to a new species that would not be able to interbreed successfully
Natural selection is the selection by the environment of particular individuals that show certain variations, these individuals will survive to reproduce and pass on their variation to the next generation
English: Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in his later years. This image is flipped. Darwin’s mole was on the right side of his nose. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The main mehod of quality assurance is usually total quality managment, which occurs when there is a culture of quality throughout the organisation. It is based on the philisophy of “right first time” so if the individual who makes the product ensures quality, then there is no need for inspection.
This is an internationally recognzied quality standard, to achieve this, firms must ensure that they have thw uality systems to cover the quality of their working methods, services and processes as well as the quality of their products, the focus is on preventation or rapid detection of faulty products, ensuring that adequate support systems are in place and good team working exists, the benefits of this award are:
marketing advantages from the acknowledgment of higher quality standards
assurance to customers that the products meet certain standards
greater employee motivation from the sense of recognition and responsibility
financial benefits in the long term from the reduction in waste and the improved repuation of the firm.
is where the data has 2 or more distinct categories
it is either one thing or another
it is not in between and has no intermediate values
the members of the species can be evenly distributed between the forms
controlled by a few genes
unaffected by the environment
Variation can be caused by the environment and genetics
we inherit genes. We have alleles for a characteristic, human cells contain approx 25,000 genes, many of these genes will have more than one allele. Environmental factors such as obesity in humans and a persons skin colour,height, direction of growth, amount of growth
English: Three-dimensional structure of cytochrome c (green) with a heme molecule coordinating a central Iron atom (orange). PDB id, 1HRC, Bushnell et al., “High-resolution three-dimensional structure of horse heart cytochrome c.” J Mol Biol. 1990 Jul 20;214(2):585-95. PubMed PMID: 2166170. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
There are large biochemical molecules found in all living things but they may not be identical. We can study the different molecules and determine the evolutionary relationships. For example Cytochrome C is a protein that is used in respiration so all organisms require it. However Cytochrome C varies between species.
So if you looked at Cytochrome C from 2 different species, you can compare the amino acids in the polypeptide.
If the sequence of amino acids are the same, then the species must be closely related
if the sequence of amino acids are not the same, then the species may not be closely related
the more different the sequence of amino acids, in species are, the less closely related are the 2 species
a budget that is set to generously may encourage inefficiency, this will demotivate staff and hinder progress through a lack of money
external factors outside the budget holders control may affect their ability to stick to a plan
poor communication can be a problem as it would mean that people would not understand each other or the area in question and also other factors that might influence the budgets
Budgetary control is important to the business as it is the establishement of the budget and the continuous comparisons of actual and budgeted results in order to ascertain variances from the plan and to provide a basis for revision of the objective or strategy. AVarianceis the difference between th planned budget and the actual budget. If the variance is poor, such as higher fixed costs or lower sales, then it as an adverse variance. Whereas if the budget is good, such as higher sales and lower fixed costs, then it is known as a favourable variance. By identifying what type of variance it is, it can allow a business to identify responsibility and take appropriate action. If its an adverse variance, then providing the factor that caused the adverse variance is under the firms control- they can then consider taking alternative approaches. Favourable variances can be used to identify efficient methods that can be adopted elsewhere in the company.
Cash flow management means that there is careful control of cash in theshort term in order to ensure liquidity. A business that is making losses will fail. But even a business that is profitable can still go out of business as they may have a poor cash flow, therefore would not have any cash to pay their creditors. My making a cash flow forecast it can also allow firms to identify possible problems and take the appropriate actions. Causes of cash-flow problems could include
over investment in fixed assets, leaving no money to pay the bills
overtrading by producing too many goods and running out of cash
credit sales will worsen the cash flow as it would increase sales, increase the variable costs but you will not have the money to pay for it until a later date
stockpiling means that you would have to many assets tied up in stocks
changing tastes as products may no longer sell
Management errors can mean that poor market research or budgetary errors can lead to cash shortages.
There are various ways of improving the cash flow of a business
easy to organise
cheaper than a loan as interest is only paid on the amount overdrawn
as its flexible it maybe difficult to budget accurately
the rate of interest charged is usually higher than the overdraft compared to a short term loan
translation of languages or dialects may give different names
the same common name maybe used for different species in different parts of time world
Thats why Latin is used, it is a universal language, so whenever a species is given its name, it is given its universal name (in Latin) as to avoid confusion
Binomal is the GENUSand species= the first letter of the genus is always capital and the first letter of the species should always be lower case.
We can identify organisms using a Dichotomous Key, as it involves a series of questions with 2 alternative answers, usually yes or no, this leads you to the next question until you can identify the specimen. A good key will have fewer questions than the number of specimens